See all of the microorganisms that could be in your soil, and how each benefits the soil and your crops.

Did you know that “A teaspoon of good soil can hold up to one billion bacteria, several thousand nematodes and several yards of fungal filaments?” That’s according to Kathy Merrifield, a retired nematologist at Oregon State University, as quoted in a UF/IFAS blog about the microorganisms in soil. See what microscopic organisms should be in your soil, and how each can help your crops, below.

Possible Microorganisms in Soil

The blog listed these microorganisms and their benefits:

Good Bacteria. “Good bacteria are the largest group of the soil jungle and there are many kinds. Some of them convert the nitrogen in the air to a useable form, in a process known as nitrogen fixation. Actinomycetes give earth that fragrance released when it rains.

We’ve discovered a lot about fungi in the last 20 years or so. Mycorrhizae are the root like filaments that form a relationship with plant roots and increase plants’ ability to take up nutrients. They also help move the nutrients around from plant to plant.  They help hold onto the soil particles and reduce erosion, which is important in our sandy Florida soils. The less you disturb your soil when planting, the less you will break up the fungal networks in your soil communities.”

Protozoa. “Protozoa are microscopic animals that are great fun to look at under a microscope. The single celled organisms feed on tiny organisms, releasing nitrogen which makes it accessible to the plants. Without their intermediary action, some nitrogen might be trapped in the dead plant tissue. Although they are single celled, they move along very well with a little moisture in the soil. Nitrogen is a key element to plant growth.”

Nematodes. “Nematodes – we gardeners immediately think of pests like the root knot nematodes that weaken our plants. But some nematodes actually eat other nematodes or other small creatures. They are part of a huge family of microorganisms and on every continent.”

Earthworms. “Earthworms are the creatures we think of as our friends in the garden. Aerators of the soil, creators of worm castings, they make channels for roots and water runoff and air movement. They leave behind rich soil. It’s no secret that earthworms are a gardener’s best friend.”

The blog maintains that “soil is the home of your plant roots. If there is plenty of organic matter in your soil, the roots can more easily hold onto water, fight off diseases and pests, grab the nutrients that are there, and grow into healthy, vigorous plants.”

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